“Expected changes in the intensity, frequency and seasonality of climate patterns and extreme events, sea level rise, glacier melting, ocean acidification and changes in precipitation with associated changes in groundwater and river flows are expected to result in significant changes across a wide range of (...) ecosystem types and regions with consequences for [natural ressources] in many places. There are also concerns that climate change could lead to the spread of pathogens with impacts on wild and cultured (...) resources.”
“Given the strong dependence in rural areas on natural resources, the impacts of climate change on agriculture, forestry and fishing, and thus on rural livelihoods and incomes, are likely to be especially serious.”
“Efforts to increase food production are nevertheless increasingly important as 60% more food will be needed by 2050 given current food consumption trends and assuming no significant reduction in food waste.”
PCC (2013), Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basics, Group I Contribution to AR5 IPCC Fifth Assesment Report, Geneva: IPCC Secretariat. Chapter 12: Food secutiry and food production systems. - IPCC (2014), Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptations, and Vulnerability, Group 2 Contribution to AR5 IPCC FifthAssessment Report, Geneva: IPCC Secretariat. Chapter 9: Rural Areas
“Impacts of climate change (...) will have implications for the four dimensions of food security : availability of (...) food, stability of supply, access to (...) food, and utilization of (food based) products.”
“Several climate factors increase price volatility such as increased incidence of adverse weather events with higher exposure to such risks, biofuel mandates, and increased links between energy and agricultural markets.”
“Climate change impacts result in an increase in global malnourished population by 49 million (11%) in 2050.”
“An estimated 150 million people currently live in cities with perennial water shortage, is to increase to 1 billion by 2050.”
“A warmer climate, with its increased climate variability, will increase the risk of both floods and droughts. (...)Precipitation intensity increases almost everywhere, but particularly at mid- and high latitudes where mean precipitation also increases. This directly affects the risk of flash flooding and urban flooding.”
IPCC (2013), Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basics, Group I Contribution to AR5 IPCC Fifth Assesment Report,
Geneva: IPCC Secretariat. Chapter 12: Food secutiry and food production systems.
IPCC (2007), Climate Change 2007: Working Group II: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability.
“Urbanization is unprecedented for its speed & scale : massive urbanization is a megatrend of the 21st century.(...) This rapid transformation is occurring throughout the world, and is accelerating.”
“The proportion of world urban population increased from 13% in 1900 to 29% in 1950 to 52% in 2011(3.6 billion). (...) By 2050, the global urban population is expected to increase by between 2.5 to 3 billion, corresponding to 64% to 69% of the world population.”
“Urbanization processes have a tendency to scatter and extinguish biodiversity. Therefor, developing corridors for species migration is of value.”
“Adapting urban food systems represents a major challenge and will necessitate radical changes in food production, storage and processing. Adaptive responses include support for urban and periurban agriculture, green roofs, local markets and enhanced safety nets.”
“Green spaces in cities are beneficial for absorbing rainfall and moderating high temperatures. Urban forests and trees can provide shading, evaporative cooling and rainwater interception, storage and infiltration services for cities (Pramova et al., 2012). Increasing tree cover is proposed as a way to reduce Urban Heat Islands.”
IPCC (2013), Climate Change 2013: Mitigation of Climate Change, Group III Fifth Assesment Report, Geneva: IPCC Secretariat. Chapter 12: Human Settlements, Infrastructure and Spatial Planning.
“The global transport GHG emissions grew from 2.8 GtCO2eq in 1970 to 7 GtCO2eq in 2010 (JRC/PBL, 2012). The OECD countries contributed the largest share of the emissions (i.e., 60% in 1970, 56% in 1990, and 46% in 2010)”
“Increasing demand for passenger and freight transport, urban development and sprawl, lack of rail, bus transit and cycle infra-structure in many regions, transport behaviour constrained by lack of modal choice in some regions, high fuel‐consuming stock fleet of vehicles, relatively low oil prices, and the limited availability of low‐carbon fuels have been the principle drivers of transport sector CO2 emission growth over the past few decades.”
IPCC (2014), Climate Change 2014: Working Group III – Mitigation of Climate Change. Chapter 5: Drivers, Trends and Mitigation.
“Adaptation is an important pillar for the response to climate change, and the IPCC Assessment reports highlight the complimentary roles of mitigation and adaptation in climate policy.”
“Adaptation strategies are defined as a general plan of action for addressing the impacts of climate change, including climate variability and extremes. Such strategies include a mix of policies and measures that have the overarching objective of reducing vulnerability to climate change impacts.”
“Adaptation will be necessary to address impacts resulting from climate change that is already unavoidable due to past emissions.”
“Climate adaptation is context dependent and it is uniquely linked to location, making it predominantly a local government and community level of action.”
“Studies indicate that politicians have not recognized climate adaptation as being politically urgent enough to elevate on the policy agenda. Subsequently they identify a tendency to prioritize other political concerns, often more short-term tangible issues.”
PCC (2013), Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basics, Group II Contribution to AR5 IPCC Fifth Assesment Report, Geneva: IPCC Secretariat. Chapter 15: Adaptation Planning and Implementation.